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Extra info for 58.Speech and Audio Processing

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Deadlocks cannot occur, because messages will rather backtrack than wait. , when a message is routed indefinitely through the network without ever reaching its destination), information about path segments already taken has to be added to the message or stored in the network nodes in a distributed fashion. A simple backtracking algorithms is the exhaustive profitable backtracking protocol. This protocol performs a depthfirst search of the network, considering profitable network links only. If a shortest path that is not blocked exists between a source and a destination, this routing algorithm will find it.

559 Wormhole routing is a switching technique similar to packet switching and is currently most often used in direct networks. In a wormhole-routed network, a message is divided into several flow-control digits ( flits) (19). The first flit of a message (header flit) contains the message’s routing information, and the last flit (tail flit) indicates its end. A message will be sent, flit by flit, in a pipelined fashion through the network. The header flit will reserve network resources exclusively for its message, and the tail flit will release each resource after it has passed it.

Speech recognition is a typical example for this case: Every preprocessed waveform is an array of vectors xT1 that is to be mapped to an array of target classes cT1 in the form of K-dimensional vectors tT1 . One type of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) provides an elegant way of dealing with this kind of problem. Figure 1 shows a basic RNN architecture with a delay line and unfolded in time for two time steps. In this structure, the input vectors xt are fed one at a time into the RNN. , ͕xt, t ϭ 1, 2, .

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