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By Alberdina Houtman, E Staalduine-Sulman, Hans-Martin Kirn

What's the use of a Targum in a cultural environment the place Aramaic isn't a typical language anymore? And why could Christians have an interest in a in general Jewish textual content in an differently anti-Jewish milieu? those and similar questions have served as publications for Alberdina Houtman, Eveline van Staalduine-Sulman and Hans-Martin Kirn in bringing jointly the articles for the current publication, which is composed of 3 components: 1. makes use of and capabilities of Targum in Europe; 2. enhancing Targums and their Latin Translations; three. Targums and Christianity. many of the articles care for the codicological and paratextual features of the appropriate manuscripts and variants as witnesses in their cultural historic events. The meant readership comprises experts in Targum, Jewish and medieval reports, (church) historians, codicologists and (Christian) theologians.

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The Aramaic translation is quite extensive and contains derogatory references to Christianity which were erased by the censors (Richler 1998, 267). Ms Cod. hebr. 341 (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich) is a collection of various works. One of them is the remnant of a Hebrew text of Genesis with an Italian interlinear translation, of which Gen. 1:1–6:9 is preserved. After Gen. 1:5 Targum Onkelos is given on these five verses, followed by the peculiar remark ‫קפטל שני‬, ‘second chapter’. The rest of the manuscript does not provide any more Targum.

Ovid, Metamorphoseon, lines 89–150. 3 After a few generations, Greek, Aramaic-Syriac or Latin texts of the Bible became replacing translations, later on becoming more and more revised to the standards of the target language, whether in the Hellenistic Jewish communities or in the early Christian congregations. Works belonging to the genre of rewritten Bible for some biblical narratives and books were a common feature in the Second Temple period and were distributed to a broad spectrum of Jewish target audiences up to Josephus’s attempt to show the honourable vetustas of the defeated Jewish nation, mentioned above.

Targum Texts as Prompters This category especially concerns the Targums of Samuel and Kings, which were used as prompters for the Aramaic translation of Chronicles (Flesher & Chilton 2011, 257). The compiler would take the existing Targums, change the translation where necessary in line with the Hebrew text of Chronicles, and adapt it to his own interpretation of the text. To mention one example: Tg 2 Sam. 23:8 gives a poetical description of King David on his throne, surrounded by heroes, prophets and elders.

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