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By Peter Lawler

Areas the paintings of Johan Galtung within the context of earlier and present debates in diplomacy, political idea, and extra more often than not, within the social sciences. This complete and significant account scrutinises Galtung's conceptual icons, akin to, optimistic peace and structural violence.

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24. Huxley, "Foreword," in Lentz, Towards a Science of Peace, pp. vi-vii. 25. Lentz's five "articles of faith" were faith in progressing toward the harmonization of human purposes; in the utility of undiscovered facts; in the discoverability of facts through the use of human intelligence; in the creative evolution and redirection of scientific research; in the existence of and applicability of the motive of universal human betterment. See Lentz, Towards a Science of Peace, ch. 6. 26. Founded as part of the Institute of Social Research at the University of Oslo in 1959, it became a fully autonomous institute in 1966.

Humans are neither similar nor constant and consistent (factors, he rightly noted, that were often ignored in utopian writing), and he thought there was little value in developing social goals without regard to humanity in all its diversity. But even if his writing exhibited an increasing sensitivity to social difference, a consistent theme also was the acknowledgment that there are universal foundations upon which peace research can be built. Along with numerous other normative writers, Galtung drew upon a conceptual tool that appeared to provide a bridge across the fact-value and  < previous page < previous page page_135 page_136 next page > next page > Page 136 is-ought divides: human needs.

Furthermore, Gandhi inspired the idea of autonomy as self-reliance coupled with community. The ideal social structure should be such that social detachment as a strategy to avoid structural violence is possible and the opportunities for self-realization are enhanced. It is not difficult to see the translation of the combined values of autonomy and collectivity into the sets of goals promoted in the WIP, although Galtung saw a deficiency in Gandhi's argument for self-reliance arising out of the overriding focus on individual spiritual purity.

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