By Samuel Elmo Martin
Have you questioned a couple of eastern sentence your textbook fails to provide an explanation for? Do you're feeling uncertain concerning the use of «wa,» «ga,» and «mo?» Or what the foundations and meanings of phrases of their literary kinds are? if this is the case, you can find your solutions in A Reference Grammar of eastern, the main accomplished and trustworthy reference resource on hand. With an intensive 105-page index, the reader will fast locate factors for debris comparable to wa, ga, mo, ni, and de tough nouns equivalent to mono, koto, tokoro, wake, hazu, and tame sentence extensions equivalent to ne, yo, sa, yara, and nari verb tenses, literary varieties, unfavorable varieties - briefly, every little thing excited by the japanese language. For the intense pupil, this e-book is vital for clearing up the ambiguities of difficult jap sentences.
«A really huge paintings. the most effective reference grammars ever written approximately any language.» - magazine of Asian Studies
«A wealth of knowledge has been packed among the covers.» - Monumenta Nipponica
«By a ways the main finished reference grammar of eastern within the English language (and might be in any language).» - magazine of Linguistics
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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Japanese
E. neutra l ly) belongs at the beginning of the sentence; the remai nder of the sentence (Oosaka kara yog [sya de asa no go-zi -han -goro koko e tu ita) has reversed our neutral order of instrumental and ablative and has placed the directly adverbial ized time expression right before the a l lative. We wou ld have expected the colorl ess version of the sentence to be: ... asa no go-zi -han -goro [hito ga] onna-no-ko o turete yoglsya de Oosaka kara koko e tu ita. It is possible that the ablative was placed before the instrumental u nder the i nfluence of such para phrases as Oosaka kara no yogfsya de 'by the night trai n (that is) from Osa ka'-as impl ied by our original Engl ish translation-or Oosaka no yogfsya de 'by the Osa ka nig ht train'.
5) ; by ellipsis Ga ... 'But .. ' 1 1 . I iterary tentative [ y ] oo + ga/to 'whether ... or . 6) . 1 2. 9, pp. 231 - 2) . 1 3. Sore ga . . , Hayai ha nasi ga .. ( § 24) . 1 4. N n i site kara ga; V-te kara ga-see kara 8. 1 5. 2, p. 487. 1 6. [dialect] = no 3 (pronominal 'one/fact/it') -see Note at end of this section. · . 40 § 2 . Predicate Adj uncts , 0 1 . 3: AFF ECT I V E object, CATH ECT I C object. 2. ) : TRAV E RSA L object. 3. ) : ABLAT I VE object. 4. 58-headi ng ) , Tuki e mo ... neta ' I stayed i n bed the whole day Sunday'.
44. Cf. Alfonso 992, who speaks of "exclusive amount" but gives as examples only agents. to 0. 6, etc. 1 . 7. 2. R EC I P ROCA L '(reciprocal ly) with' (cf. nl 1 a) ; 'from' (N to tigau 'differs from N , is other than N ') ; 'with = agai nst' (A ga B to tata kau/arasou 'A fights/struggles with B ', A ga B to ronsoo suru 'A argues with B ') . 6. 3. COM ITAT I VE N to [ issyo/tomo( -) ni] '(together) with N '. 6. 4. s + to 'when, if, . 2. 5. ) : § 21 . no 5 1 . 4 ( possessive nomina ls) , § 3. 3.