Download Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, by Walter H. Fertl PDF

By Walter H. Fertl

Petroleum formation pressures

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Extra resources for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources

Example text

Earthquakes have probably ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 33 caused such sudden changes in pore fluid pressures throughout present and past geologic times. An apparent effect is the sudden rise in the groundwater level, sometimes causing springs to start flowing again. Such forces generally operate in shallow aquifers but, as observed in petroleum reservoirs, are sometimes also found at greater depth. For example, the 1953 earthquake in California caused production in the nearby Mountain View oil field t o double over a period of several weeks following the disturbance.

The nearcontinuous fault creep along the San Andreas and related Calveras and Hayward faults also may be a result of these postulated high pore fluid pressures adjacent to these faults. S. Gulf Coast area, massive carbonate sections in the Middle East, or conditions found in the North Sea area and the South China Sea. In other words, abnormally high formation pressures may have many origins, frequently a combination of superimposed factors, including the following. Piezometric fluid level The effect of a regional potentiometric surface which is abnormally high can cause surpressures.

Earthquakes may cause compression in subsurface formations such as aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Earthquakes have probably ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 33 caused such sudden changes in pore fluid pressures throughout present and past geologic times. An apparent effect is the sudden rise in the groundwater level, sometimes causing springs to start flowing again. Such forces generally operate in shallow aquifers but, as observed in petroleum reservoirs, are sometimes also found at greater depth.

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