By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
This e-book investigates options, advantages, boundaries, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to conform to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside of a definite strength funds, whereas concentrating on complete integration. eventually, the booklet investigates probabilities for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS know-how.
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Extra info for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
Image rejection before frequency down-conversion Image rejection before the frequency down-conversion can be realized by filtering. If ideal filtering is applied, then the image signal is totally suppressed (see Fig. 4). In practice such ideal filtering cannot be realized. A more realistic case of image rejection is presented in Fig. 6(a) and (b). Xrf (ω ) and Xrff (ω ) are the amplitude spectra of the signals before and after filtering. Since the attenuation at the frequency of the image signal is finite, the image suppression is finite too.
Power consumption is increased compared to the quadrature low-IF front-end architecture due to additional pair of mixers. In order to alleviate the NF and voltage gain deterioration due to the RCPF, the idea is to remove RCPF from the signal path and to find other way to generate I/Q signals before the frequency down-conversion. 27 shows the double-conversion double-quadrature low-IF front-end architecture . As shown in Fig. 27, the RCPF is not present any more in the signal path. Instead of the RCPF two mixers are placed in the signal path.
Pqn has to be sufficiently low in order to prevent deterioration of SNR at the ADC output. When a signal with a level equal to the sensitivity level is processed by a front-end, Pqn has to be 20 dB lower than Psens . This gives a total DRadc of 97 dB. 3) fsam is the sampling frequency, while fsig is the carrier frequency. 76 For a dynamic range of 97 dB, a resolution of 16 bits is required. Considering the state of the art in ADCs currently it is not possible to design an ADC that can handle analog signals with such a large DR and at RF frequencies with a power consumption comparable to the power consumption of RF transceivers.