Download Advances in Immunology, Vol. 16 by F.J. Dixon, Henry G. Kunkel (Eds.) PDF

By F.J. Dixon, Henry G. Kunkel (Eds.)

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Extra resources for Advances in Immunology, Vol. 16

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B. SURFACE-BOUND IMMUNOGLOBULIN AS A MARKER OF B-LYMPHOCYTES IN MAN The cells staining for immunoglobulin in humans as in the mouse and chicken appear to be bone marrow-derived (B-lymphocytes) and thus belong to the plasma cell line. Particular interest has centered on these lymphocytes in patients with various types of immune deficiencies showing extremely low levels of circulating Ig and few or no plasma cells. , 1971; Froland and Natvig, 1971, 1972a). In contrast, patients with cellular immunodeficiencies have normal or even elevated numbers of cells staining for surface-bound 34 J.

This gives further structural evidence that the Gm( e ) and some other Gm markers of IgGl are indeed as genetic marker systems measuring non-a. + 5. Relationship betzceen Tertiary or Quaternary Configuration and Primary Structure As previously discussed, the Gni markers have successfully been related to immunoglobulin fragments and subfragments. Also the genetic markers of the light chains, the IiiV markers, are definitely located on the constant region of the K light chains. One particular property of the Gm(f) and Gm( z) markers of the Fd fragment and InV (1) and ( 2 ) markers of the light chains is their requirement for the integrity of the quaternary structure between heavy and light chains for the expression of the antigenic activity.

At present, there is the following strong evidcnce from normal immunoglobulins and particularly from studying myeloma proteins that there are at least four different IgG heavy-chain cistrons, one for each of the four IgG subclasses. (Initially this was a subject of considerable controversy. ) 1. The IgG myeloma proteins can be classified into four well-defined subclasses representing different proteins with distinct antigenic, physical chemical, and basic structural amino acid and peptide differences.

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