By Viacheslav Shpakovsky, David Nicolle, Gerry Embleton
Dealing with off opposed to Byzantines, Arabs, Vikings, Turks, Mongols, and Russians, this steppe tradition ruled Black Sea and Caucasus exchange in the course of Medieval times.
The Bulgars have been a Turkic those who confirmed a country north of the Black Sea, and who confirmed similarities with the Alans and Sarmatians. within the overdue 500s and early 600s advert their country fragmented stressed from the Khazars; one workforce moved south into what grew to become Bulgaria, however the relaxation moved north in the course of the seventh and eighth centuries to the basin of the Volga river. There they remained below Khazar domination till the Khazar Khanate was once defeated by means of Kievan (Scandinavian) Russia in 965. Thereafter the Volga Bulgars - controlling an in depth zone surrounding a massive hub of overseas alternate - grew to become richer and extra influential; they embraced Islam, changing into the main northerly of medieval peoples to take action. Given their principal place on exchange routes, their armies have been famous for the splendour in their armour and guns, which drew upon either Western and japanese assets and impacts (as, ultimately, did their battling tactics).
In the 1220s they controlled to maul Genghis Khan's Mongols, who lower back to devastate their cities in revenge. by means of the 1350s that they had recovered a lot in their wealth, yet they have been stuck within the heart among the Tatar Golden Horde and the Christian Russian principalities. They have been ravaged through those armies in activate numerous events among 1360 and 1431. a brand new urban then rose from the ashes - Kazan, initially referred to as New Bulgar - and the successor Islamic Khanate of Kazan resisted the Russians until eventually falling to Ivan the poor in 1552. The costumes, armament, armour and battling equipment of the Volga Bulgars in this momentous interval are explored during this absolutely illustrated examine.
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Additional resources for Armies of the Volga Bulgars & Khanate of Kazan: 9th-16th Centuries
Also found in the territory of the Volga Bulgars were fragments of iron plate armour dating from the 12th to 13th centuries, though the surviving pieces are too fragmentary to permit accurate reconstruction. 5 inches). com metal; their sizes and shapes vary considerably, perhaps indicating that a variety of different types of both lamellar and scale armours were manufactured. During the 13th century, if not slightly earlier, there was increasing contact between East and West, which might account for the appearance of mail armours with flat rings rather than those made from round-section drawn wire, as well as armours made from small scales and, perhaps, the use of kite-shaped shields, as well as the already mentioned helmets with face-mask visors.
M. Canard), Voyage chez les Bulgares de la Volga (Paris, 1988) Ibn-Rustah, Ahmad al-Isfahani (Abu Ali Ahmad Ibn Umar) (ed. De Goeje), Kitab al-A‘lak al-Nafisa (Book of Precious Records) (Leiden, 1892) Istakhri, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Farisi al- (ed. W. Ouseley), The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the Tenth Century (London, 1800). NB: this work was wrongly attributed to Ibn Hawqal. , Zashchitniki ‘Stenui Iskandera’ - Vooruzhenue, voennoe iskussmvo i voennaya ismoruya Volgasskoi Bulgarii X-XIII vv (Defenders of ‘Alexander’s Wall’.
This was the climactic battle that decided the fate of the Volga Bulgars’ capital city – and, indeed, their state – during the Mongol invasions. Eventually it ended with the total destruction of Bilyar and the grisly massacre of its population, estimated at several tens of thousands of deaths. According to the historical sources, after the battle of the Samara Bend in which a Volga Bulgar force drove off a Mongol army, the Bulgars renovated and strengthened the entire fortifications of Bilyar. 8 miles) long, this time made of both stone and timber, with a deep moat.