By S K Kawatra
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Extra info for Beneficiation of phosphate ore
First, it is important that the column be installed perfectly vertical, since any tilting in the column will enhance axial mixing. Second, using relatively small bubbles with uniform size distribution will help limit axial mixing. Lastly, the addition of horizontal baffles (perforated plates) throughout the column has been shown to significantly decrease axial mixing and increase overall flotation performance (Kawatra and Eisele 1999, 2001). 9, horizontal baffles break up the global axial mixing shown in the unbaffled column into smaller local mixing patterns without restricting fluid flow so much that plugging occurs.
The methods vary significantly in accuracy, difficulty, and amount of data needed for entrainment calculations. In addition, several authors have attempted to generate models for entrainment (Savassi et al. 1998; Zheng et al. 2005, 2006; Martinez-Carrillo and Uribe-Salas 2008). In phosphate flotation, some authors have suggested that entrainment could be the reason for fine silica reporting to the froth phosphate concentrate during the anionic flotation stage of the Crago double float process. It was suggested that because of the low floatability of sedimentary phosphates, larger amounts of fatty acid collector were needed during the anionic flotation stage, resulting in large and voluminous froths that caused silica to be entrained into the phosphate concentrate (Zhong et al.
5) procedure used in the Crago double float process (Oswald 1993; Wiegel 1999; Guan 2009a). Contact angle measurements can also be used to test the selectivity of potential collectors. Kawatra et al. (2012) tested the selectivity of potential Beneficiation of Siliceous Sedimentary Phosphate Ores 35 dolomite collectors by conditioning both dolomite and apatite pebbles and measuring contacts angles using the static sessile drop technique. Five dolomite pebbles and five apatite pebbles were ground into flat slices and conditioned with a proposed dolomite collector at the same conditions.