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By Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A. van

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To produce styrene. 6 Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde is an intermediate in acetic acid and vinyl acetate production. Since 1916 it has been produced from the addition of water to acetylene, a reaction catalyzed by divalent mercury in sulphuric acid (20%)/water. Acetylene was made from coal. In Germany in particular, a lot of research was carried out on the use of acetylene as a chemical feedstock. H C K H + H20 + CH3CHO Coal was also the feedstock for synthesis gas (vide infig). Many contributions to acetylene chemistry are due to Reppe.

Moulijn, Slow and Rapid Pyrolysis of Coal, in Y. Jiiriim (Editor),New Trends in Coal Sciences, Kluwer Acad. , Dordrecht, 1988, pp. 305-309. 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter a dozen industrial catalytic processes will be described with the aim of giving the reader an impression of the use of catalysis. We have chosen to do this before going into the scientific aspects of catalysis, catalyst preparation and characterization, and catalytic reaction engineering. In this way we set the scene with the industrial applications, so that the reader may keep it in mind when studying the various aspects of catalysis.

6. 07 Lambda Fig. 6. The concentration of CO, NO, CH, and 0 2 emitted by a gasoline engine as a function of h, the fuel-air ratio. 18 1 -HISTORY OF CATALYSIS At h < 1the activity for NO reduction is high, but not for the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons. At h > 1the reverse is the case. A special control system had to be developed to guarantee the desired exhaust gas composition. The control system appears to be more critical than the catalyst itself. The catalysts in use contain Pt and Rh as major constituents.

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