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By Thomas Lindemann

Theories at the origins of battle are frequently according to the basis that the rational actor is in pursuit of fabric delight, reminiscent of the search for strength or for wealth. those views overlook the necessity for homo symbolicus -- which means the upkeep of a good self-image for either emotional and instrumental purposes. an exceptional attractiveness guarantees authority and fabric assets. Non-recognition should be up to an evidence of struggle as that of different explicative 'variables'. the 2 empirical reports studying the position of non-recognition in nice strength conflicts and in foreign crises show the price of this symbolic procedure.

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There are certain norms which claim some respect for the hierarchical status and autonomy of states. Equal sovereignty, affirmed by the ‘Westphalian Myth’ (Osiander 2001), implies that each state is its own master and free from any external authority (Barterlson 1995). Treating others as equals in common institutions will not only lead others to feel recognised, but may also positively transform our image of them to the extent that they carry out duties associated with membership. On the contrary, rhetorical deprecation, ‘coercive or manipulative’ state behaviour is not compatible with the idea of a state’s equal dignity and autonomy.

30 In short, the lack of shared identities diminishes the recognition costs of war, while the recognition costs of armed conflicts are the struggle for recognition in international relations 37 especially high in security communities. Such shared identities may also be used ‘instrumentally’ by decision makers to prevent war. War for a state’s ‘universal’ dignity Hence, according to the first hypotheses non-recognition is also caused by those which deem themselves to be offended insofar as identities give often meaning to respectful or disrespectful behaviour.

One sees this in the way in which the United States reacts to the attacks of the 11th September, 2001, or Israel with harassing of the armed Palestinian organisations’. the struggle for recognition in international relations 29 The existence of a causal relation between non-recognition and armed conflict is probabilistic and not deterministic. Thus, the fact that proud decision makers of a stigmatised state, such as Ahmadinejad in Iran (2007), are still not implicated in a war does not invalidate the principal recognition hypothesis.

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