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By R. J. Prince (auth.), Dr R. M. Mortier, Dr S. T. Orszulik (eds.)

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Extra resources for Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants

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These hydrocrackers are important refinery conversion units and are used to make a range of fuels products from vacuum distillate feedstocks. Some plants do not fully convert the feed in one pass to low boiling products and the limited amount of residue which remains (5-10%) can be recycled within the plant, used as a fuel oil blending component or be upgraded to make these special base oils. 12 indicates the extra steps. Extraction and hydrotreatment are desirable to remove traces of polycyclic aromatics and improve product quality.

Filtration efficiency could be greatly improved by diluting the oil with solvents such as naphtha, but the selectivity for wax removal was reduced. Improved solvent systems have been developed to give better de-waxing performance and important factors in the choice of solvent are: • • • • • • Good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. Small temperature difference between de-waxing temperature and the pour point of the de-waxed oil. Minimum solvent/oil ratios.

E. they have low to medium VI), but they are used in a wide range of applications where this is not a problem. Since naphthenic crudes are free of wax, no de-waxing step is needed, but solvent extraction or hydrotreatment is nowadays often used to reduce aromatic content and especially to remove polycyclic aromatics which may present a health hazard in untreated oils. The main producers of naphthenics are in North and South America, because most of the world's supply of naphthenic lube crudes are to be found there.

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