By Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa
This publication offers an outline of the technology and expertise of chocolate manufacture from cocoa construction, in the course of the production tactics, to the sensory, meals and future health features of chocolate consumption.
It covers cocoa cultivation and creation with particular realization paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic diversifications within the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying strategies, and the biochemical foundation of those operations. The medical rules in the back of business chocolate manufacture are defined with specified motives of many of the phases of chocolate production together with blending, refining, conching and tempering. different issues lined comprise the chemistry of flavour formation and improvement in the course of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; unstable flavour compounds and their features and id; sensory descriptions and personality; and flavour liberate and conception in chocolate. The dietary and future health advantages of cocoa and chocolate intake also are addressed.
There is a spotlight all through on these components that impact the flavor and caliber features of the completed chocolate and that supply scope for strategy optimization and development. The e-book is designed to be a table reference for all these engaged within the enterprise of constructing and utilizing chocolate all over the world; confectionery and chocolate scientists in and academia; scholars and working towards foodstuff scientists and technologists; nutritionists and different health and wellbeing execs; and libraries of associations the place nutrition technological know-how is studied and researched.* an summary of the technological know-how at the back of chocolate manufacture* covers the complete strategy from cocoa creation, via production, to the nutrients and wellbeing and fitness elements of chocolate intake* makes a speciality of elements that impression chocolate flavour and caliber, and that offer scope for approach optimization and development.
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Extra resources for Chocolate Science and Technology
These bacteria are responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and further oxidation of the latter to carbon dioxide and water. The acidulation of cocoa beans and the high temperature in the fermenting mass, which causes diffusion and hydrolysis of proteins in the cotyledons, have been attributed to the metabolism of these organisms. Thus, the acetic acid bacteria play a key role in the formation of the precursors of chocolate flavour. In general, the members of genus Acetobacter have been found to be more frequent than those of Gluconobacter.
2000). Polyphenol reactions with sugar and amino acids contribute flavour and colour to cocoa beans and alkaloids to the bitterness (Lehrian & Patterson, 1983). During fermentation, protein breakdown occurs partly by hydrolysis to peptides and amino acids and partly by conversion to insoluble forms by the actions of polyphenols. Polyphenol oxidase promotes oxidative browning to give the characteristic chocolate brown colour of well-fermented Forastero beans. , 1982a). , 1993), is degraded in fermentation, the albumin (21 kDa) is not.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Degree of fermentation Moisture content (maximum 6%) Number of defects Number of broken beans Bean count (number per 100 g) Degree of mouldiness Flavour profile Colour Fat content (minimum 52%) Fat quality relating to percentage of free fatty acids (as oleic acid) Shell content (10–12%) Uniformity of bean size Insect and rodent infestation Industrial chocolate manufacture – processes and factors influencing quality 37 The second technique is evaluated based on the size of the beans using either bean count (number of beans per 100 g) or the weight in grams of 100 beans.