Download Classification, Clustering, and Data Mining Applications: by Banks D., et al. (eds.) PDF

By Banks D., et al. (eds.)

This quantity describes new equipment with designated emphasis on type and cluster research. those equipment are utilized to difficulties in info retrieval, phylogeny, clinical prognosis, microarrays, and different lively examine components.

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Example text

7) presents a relationship between volumetric gas flow rate and flowing borehole pressure based on minimum kinetic energy. The minimum required gas flow rate cannot be determined unless the flowing borehole pressure is known. The flowing borehole pressure can be formulated on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics after a few assumptions. 16 ˙ s + W˙ g + W˙ l W γm = Qs + Q g + Ql where • Ws • Wg • Wl Qs Qg Ql = weight flow rate of solid, lb/sec = weight flow rate of gas, lb/sec = weight flow rate of liquid, lb/sec = volumetric flow rate of solid, ft3/sec = volumetric flow rate of gas, ft3/sec = volumetric flow rate of liquid, ft3/sec 29 guo CH 02(19-70) 9/10/02 9:11 AM Page 30 Gas Volume Requirements for Underbalanced Drilling | Deviated Holes The sum of the volumetric flow rates of solid and liquid is usually less than 5% of the total volumetric flow rate in air, gas, mist, and unstable foam.

74 − 2 log   d H   2 where e = absolute wall roughness, in. 32) is valid for large values of the Reynolds number where the effect of relative roughness is dominant, which is consistent with Moody’s chart. Ikoku24 uses friction factor correlations proposed by Colebrook25 and Jain26 that are applicable to flow in smooth pipes, flow in transition, and fully rough zones of turbulent flow. These correlations degenerate to the Nikuradse correlation at large values of the Reynolds number. Therefore, we use Nikuradse’s friction factor correlation in our text for gas flow in open-hole gas drilling.

Gas volume charts are presented in Figures B–1 through B–24 in Appendix B. Gas volume requirements for gas of a different spe- 40 guo CH 02(19-70) 9/10/02 9:11 AM Page 41 | Air, Gas, Mist, and Unstable Foam Drilling cific gravity can be determined from these charts based on interpolation. 1 in. 7 psia 0 bbl/min 0 bbl/min Obviously, results from these charts need to be corrected for ambient conditions, and the charts are not valid for mist and unstable foam drilling where misting and/or formation fluid influx exist.

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