Download Comprehensive Natural Products II Vol.4 Chemical Ecology by Mander L., Liu H.-W.B. PDF

By Mander L., Liu H.-W.B.

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In D. 386 In spite of the several reports of their occurrence, it is not clear whether the aromatic species are common in plants. 40 Plant Hormones Figure 13 Synthetic phenylurea-type cytokinins. Phenylurea-related compounds (Figure 13) also have cytokinin activity although there is no evidence for the natural occurrence of this class of compounds, strongly suggesting that they are artificial cytokinins. N,N9diphenylurea was first reported as a novel type of cytokinin from the liquid endosperm of coconut, but it was later found to be a contaminant from prior chemical analyses.

437 Enzymes catalyzing N-glucosylation at the N3 position have not yet been identified. 10 Degradation of cytokinins In addition to biosynthesis and conjugation to other molecules, degradation is an important step that controls active cytokinin levels. Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) mediates irreversible cytokinin degradation (Figure 22). 443,446 These results might be a reflection of functional differentiation among AtCKXs. Overexpression of each CKX results in a decrease in cytokinin content in tobacco447 and Plant Hormones 47 Figure 21 N-glycosylation of cytokinin in Arabidopsis.

2 GID1, the cytosolic gibberellin receptor It was believed that GA molecules are able to permeate the plasma membrane of plant cells by passive diffusion, because of their hydrophobic nature under the neutral pH condition. Some researchers therefore expected that GA perception would occur in a similar fashion to that of mammalian steroid hormones. In fact, some results have suggested that GA perception occurred in the nucleus; the composition of RNA in nuclei isolated from pea317 or cucumber318 seedlings changed when GA was applied.

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