By Samir Kumar Das
This monograph examines the function of civil society teams in peace construction in 3 clash areas in India's Northeast--Assam, Naga Hills/Nagaland, and Mizo Hills/Mizoram. those political conflicts are complicated with each one clash representing a cacophony of competing, usually zero-sum calls for. In investigating the function of civil society teams, the research distinguishes among authentic (between the govt of India and sure rebel enterprises) and unofficial peace techniques on the neighborhood point that makes coexistence of numerous groups attainable regardless of the ongoing violence. those techniques replicate very other ways of addressing clash and defining the position of civil society teams in peace construction. within the reliable peace method, the function of civil society teams is to carry fighters to the negotiating desk, set forth in all likelihood agreeable ceasefire phrases, and recommend attainable settlements. The emphasis is on discovering ideas on the macro point within the trust that cost also will result in answer of micro point difficulties. by contrast the position of civil society teams within the unofficial techniques is to continually negotiate throughout ethnic barriers and give the chance for rival groups to dwell jointly within the similar village, locality, or local. Compromise is needed at each point for clash answer. renowned tasks additionally support insulate the overall inhabitants from insurgent teams. The reputable and unofficial peace tactics frequently continue on parallel tracks with minimal impression on one another. it is crucial for the 2 procedures to be attached. For civil society teams to be better in peace construction, they have to be socially built-in and strengthen synergy with different ingredients and stakeholders.
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Extra resources for Conflict and Peace in India's Northeast: The Role of Civil Society
The FGN leaders rejected any offer short of complete independence and a sovereign Nagaland. At this point, the Naga underground was seriously afflicted by factionalism within its ranks. The Tatar Hoho blamed Kughato Sukhai for the failure of talks, and he was forced to resign as prime minister of FGN. The change in NNC leadership brought intertribal rivalry between two Naga groups, the Angamis and the Semas, to the fore and resulted in a series of assassinations organized by both sides. A rev- Conflict and Peace in India’s Northeast 29 olutionary group emerged from within the ranks and the two factions indulged in fratricidal warfare during this time.
The Government of Assam imposed the controversial Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of 1958, which enables even a noncommissioned army officer to open fire and kill civilians without facing the burden of trial in a court of law. As a counterinsurgency measure, the army also experimented with the notorious Malayan experience of “regrouping” villages under army surveillance in a bid to isolate the rebels from any social interaction with the villagers. : 169). A regrouped village was called a “protected and progressive village”.
A moderate breakaway group of the NNC wrote to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to try to settle the problem within the framework of the Indian Constitution. The same group convened the first All-Tribal Naga People’s Convention in Kohima, August 22–26, 1957, under the leadership of Imkongliba Ao. Although the underground section boycotted the convention, the NPC assigned itself the task of mediating between the FGN and the Government of India. It also resolved to settle the Naga issue through negotiation.