Download Cosmic Catastrophes: Exploding Stars, Black Holes, and by J. Craig Wheeler PDF

By J. Craig Wheeler

Totally up-to-date moment version for undergraduate scholars in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Extra resources for Cosmic Catastrophes: Exploding Stars, Black Holes, and Mapping the Universe

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The tank containing the cleaning fluid was at the bottom of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The underground operation is necessary to screen out cosmic ray particles that could induce spurious transitions of the chlorine to argon. The mine was vacant until the price of gold soared to astronomical highs several years ago. The Homestake company reactivated it, and for a while the scientists had to work to the sound of dynamite explosions as new veins were developed. More recently, mining stopped again and the mine has flooded.

Many electrons can, however, occupy the same volume if some of the electrons have extra energy. Extra energy does arise in this circumstance as a Setting the stage result of the compaction by gravity and the action of the uncertainty principle. ’’ To satisfy the uncertainty principle, the energy (strictly speaking the momentum) must become more uncertain. As the uncertainty in the electron energy becomes higher, the effective average energy of the electron increases. Thus the compaction squeezes the electrons together, the exclusion principle prevents two electrons with the same energy from occupying the same volume, and the restricted volume gives the electrons more energy in accord with the uncertainty principle.

Gravity prepares to deal the death blow.

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