By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández
Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled manner of storing power with a view to enhance the quantity of electrical cost produced. long ago, using reasonably cheap fabrication methods equivalent to complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been saved for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels under the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for conversation units, and the fashion of system-on-chip know-how, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF functions maintains to upward thrust, it's crucial that passive units resembling varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a severe layout issue.Initially describing the actual phenomena that happen in passive units inside of average IC fabrication methods, layout and Characterization of built-in Varactors for RF functions is going on to:- current info at the layout of broad band electric varactor versions (up to five GHz) which allow the actual prediction of gadget performance;- suggest a particular method for the dimension of built-in varactors, masking on-wafer size buildings, the calibration strategy, and distinct descriptions of the mandatory equipment;- clarify de-embedding ideas and in addition examine self belief point and uncertainty associated with the attempt set-up;- learn the layout of a voltage managed oscillator (VCO) circuit as a realistic instance of the employment of equipment mentioned within the ebook. offering the reader with the mandatory technical wisdom for facing tough VCO designs, this ebook is a necessary advisor for working towards RF and microwave engineers engaged on the layout of digital units for built-in circuits. it's also an invaluable reference for postgraduate scholars and researchers drawn to digital layout for RF purposes.
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Additional info for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications
E4(t) electric field between the depletion zone and the source/drain terminal: this causes: parasitic capacitance between the depletion zone and the Nþdiffusions. E5(t) electric field in the source and drain contacts: this appears as a result of the distribution of voltages in the source and drain contacts. It produces: ohmic losses in the source and the drain terminals. E6(t) electric field in the N well: this appears as a result of the distribution of voltages in the N well. It causes: parasitic capacitance in the N well; ohmic losses in the N well due to its resistivity.
The resistance of the varactor might be expected to increase in proportion to the distance between the islands, but this is not so due to the fact that most integrated technologies include an Nþ type low-resistivity buried layer under the N well. Most of the RF currents between the Pþ and Nþ islands flow along this Nþ layer, minimizing the resistive effect of the N well. 17 shows the effect of the buried layer on the RF currents. 4. As the capacitance is kept almost constant for each varactor, the presence of the buried layer avoids a high reduction in the quality.
This strategy removes the PN-junction parasitic capacitances that appeared between the drain, the source and the substrate P, which would have limited the tuning range. The two control electrodes are the gate and the drain/source (shortcircuited by metal connections). The bulk is connected to ground. The operating mode is controlled by the gate–drain DC voltage (VGS). 2 (Maget, 2001): The solid line represents to the behaviour of the varactor at low frequencies and the broken line to that of high frequencies.