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Solution for NR and SBR, while a calcium chloride aqueous solution is used for NBR and CNBR. The mixture is later washed with water and oven dried at approximately 80 °C for 18 h. Vulcanization additives are then incorporated into the nanocomposite using a two-roll mill. The structural characterization performed on nanocomposites showed that the rubber molecules led to the separation of the clay into individual layers and/or silicate aggregates with thickness in the nanometer range with no intercalation of rubber into the clay galleries.

Magaraphan et al. [43] studied the effect of different amine intercalants on the mechanical properties of NR clay nanocomposites prepared using the solution process. The composite was prepared by dissolving NR in toluene along with MMT modified with primary or quaternary intercalants bearing different hydrocarbon alkyl tails. The curing agents were then subsequently mixed with the composite. After drying, the mixture was homogenized on an open mill. It was found that the composite prepared with primary amine intercalants had better mechanical performance over its counterpart that was prepared with quaternary amine intercalants.

6 GPa, respectively, and a great increase in the storage modulus and glass transition temperatures were observed by an addition of 5 wt% cellulose nanofibers [32]. Taking into consideration these extrusion methods that were used, it can be seen that different structures of the cellulose can lead to varied results. 1 Natural Rubber–Clay Nanocomposites Natural Rubber Natural Rubber (NR) is one of the most important elastomeric materials consumed in the industry, half of its total consumption being used for rubber products.

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