By John Hargreaves
Even if the struggle for independence by means of ethnic minorities has acquired a lot consciousness lately, there's no learn of ways globalized activity in its such a lot complicated shape can assist to stimulate it. This publication exhibits how the 1992 Olympic video games raised the strain that already existed among Catalonia and Spain. John Hargreaves analyzes and explains the way the clash constructed and at last used to be resolved by way of the exact features of Catalan nationalism, the character of the recent Spanish democracy and the targeted position performed through the overseas Olympic Committee.
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Additional resources for Freedom for Catalonia?: Catalan Nationalism, Spanish Identity and the Barcelona Olympic Games (Cambridge Cultural Social Scie)
In these ways Catalan nationalism shows that ethnic nationalism need not necessarily be more ‘tribal’, intolerant and exclusive than civic nationalism (Brown, 1999). Nevertheless, there are ethnic boundaries between the Catalan and Castilian communities constituted by diﬀerent linguistic patterns, senses of national identity, political party allegiance and, notably, by the fact that a disproportionate number of middle-level and elite positions in Catalan society are held by autochthonous Catalans (Barrera-González, 1995; Flaquer, 1996; Llobera, 1989; Llobera, forthcoming).
Given Catalonia’s history, it is not surprising that federalism and republicanism, which played an important part in Spanish politics as the century advanced, also took hold in Catalonia. As self-conscious modernisers, Catalan elites increasingly felt themselves to be hamstrung by an ineﬃcient, backward, parasitical centre that did not recognise their region’s unique qualities or represent its interests. The last straw came with the crisis of 1898, when Spain, as if to conﬁrm its decrepitude, suﬀered defeat in the war with the United States and lost the only economically important parts of the empire that were left: Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
The ethnic homogeneity of the Catalan political elite thus seems to be a vital ingredient in the pactist political culture that characterises Catalan politics. The structure of Catalan politics is strongly pluralist and this, combined with Catalonia’s contractualist political 2 Both Esquerra Republicana and Iniciativa de Catalunya have since split up into separate parties. 34 Freedom for Catalonia? culture and its pactist strategy, enables it to respond remarkably ﬂexibly and creatively in its relations with the centre.