By Igal Halfin
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Additional info for From Darkness to Light: Class, Consciousness, and Salvation in Revolutionary Russia
Also found in the territory of the Volga Bulgars were fragments of iron plate armour dating from the 12th to 13th centuries, though the surviving pieces are too fragmentary to permit accurate reconstruction. 5 inches). com metal; their sizes and shapes vary considerably, perhaps indicating that a variety of different types of both lamellar and scale armours were manufactured. During the 13th century, if not slightly earlier, there was increasing contact between East and West, which might account for the appearance of mail armours with flat rings rather than those made from round-section drawn wire, as well as armours made from small scales and, perhaps, the use of kite-shaped shields, as well as the already mentioned helmets with face-mask visors.
M. Canard), Voyage chez les Bulgares de la Volga (Paris, 1988) Ibn-Rustah, Ahmad al-Isfahani (Abu Ali Ahmad Ibn Umar) (ed. De Goeje), Kitab al-A‘lak al-Nafisa (Book of Precious Records) (Leiden, 1892) Istakhri, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Farisi al- (ed. W. Ouseley), The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian traveller of the Tenth Century (London, 1800). NB: this work was wrongly attributed to Ibn Hawqal. , Zashchitniki ‘Stenui Iskandera’ - Vooruzhenue, voennoe iskussmvo i voennaya ismoruya Volgasskoi Bulgarii X-XIII vv (Defenders of ‘Alexander’s Wall’.
This was the climactic battle that decided the fate of the Volga Bulgars’ capital city – and, indeed, their state – during the Mongol invasions. Eventually it ended with the total destruction of Bilyar and the grisly massacre of its population, estimated at several tens of thousands of deaths. According to the historical sources, after the battle of the Samara Bend in which a Volga Bulgar force drove off a Mongol army, the Bulgars renovated and strengthened the entire fortifications of Bilyar. 8 miles) long, this time made of both stone and timber, with a deep moat.