By Marino Xanthos
A accomplished and updated assessment of the most important mineral and natural fillers for plastics, their creation, constitution and homes, in addition to their functions by way of basic and secondary capabilities. Edited and co-authored through Professor Marino Xanthos with contributions by way of overseas specialists from and academia, this publication provides tools of mixing/incorporation applied sciences, floor remedies and variations for superior performance, an research of parameters affecting filler functionality and a presentation of present and rising functions. also, the unconventional class in accordance with amendment of particular polymer homes instead of filler chemical composition offers a greater knowing of the relationships among processing, constitution and houses of goods containing useful fillers and the identity of recent markets and applications.For engineers, scientists and technologists taken with the real area of polymer composites.
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Additional info for Functional Fillers for Plastics
Parameters affecting composite strength sc are the ultimate strength of the ﬁbers or ribbons sfu, the ultimate strength of the matrix smu, or the stress borne by the 0 matrix, s m , when the ﬁbers or ribbons fail, volume fractions, the shear strength of the matrix or bond strength t, and the angle between the direction of stress and the ﬁber axis. Maximal strength in the ﬁber composites is obtained in the longitudinal case, that is, at an angle of 0 in the case of perfect adhesion. Under these conditions, the composite efﬁciently utilizes the strong reinforcement, and the overall failure is by ﬁber or ribbon fracture.
The need to minimize contact angle to maximize the work of adhesion Wa is shown by the following Young–Dupre equations: Wa ¼ c1 þ c2 Àc12 ð2:2Þ Wa ¼ c2 ð1 þ cos qÞ ð2:3Þ The need to minimize unfavorable interfacial interactions by minimizing the interfacial tension c12 can also be inferred from the following simpliﬁed Good– Girifalco equations: c12 ¼ c1 þ c2 À2W ðc1 c2 Þ0:5 Wa ¼ 2W ðc1 c2 Þ 0:5 ð2:4Þ ð2:5Þ where W is the interaction parameter that depends on polarity. Polarity is deﬁned as the ratio of the polar component of the surface tension to the total surface tension.
As described by Heinold , the ﬁrst generation of ﬁllers soon after the commercialization of polypropylene included talc platelets and asbestos ﬁbers for their beneﬁcial effects on stiffness and heat resistance. The search for an asbestos replacement due to health issues led to calcium carbonate particles and mica ﬂakes as the second-generation ﬁllers. Mica was found to be more effective than talc for increasing stiffness and heat resistance, whereas calcium carbonate was less effective in increasing stiffness but increased the impact resistance of PP homopolymers.