By Joyce Gelb (auth.)
This e-book is the 1st to discover the similarities and adjustments in gender comparable coverage making and results in Japan and the us. It specializes in the function of women's routine and different elements in picking out coverage. 3 guidelines are tested: equivalent employment, household violence and reproductive rights, with extra awareness to gender equality coverage in Japan and 'family pleasant coverage' in either international locations. The research examines the importance of foreign feminism and new criteria of gender fairness - kansetsu gaiatsu - as a source for jap feminists looking coverage reform, in addition to new traits towards coverage cooperation. the longer term position of the U.S., lengthy a pacesetter in coverage improvement for girls, is significantly analyzed, and Gelb means that American feminists and policymakers can examine very important classes from the event of eastern women's routine and efforts at influencing public policy.
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Extra info for Gender Policies in Japan and the United States: Comparing Women’s Movements, Rights and Politics
The Equal Employment Opportunity Law (EEOL), passed in 1985, discussed in the next chapter, may have raised expectations and consciousness related to workplace opportunities and led to more activism when these were disappointed. Three types of women’s social movement groups have been identified: (1) working women’s advocacy groups protesting discriminatory policies by employers, related to unequal pay, failure to promote women and the institutionalization of gender-biased two track employment systems; (2) support groups for plaintiffs in sex discrimination litigation; and (3) women’s unions, which represent a new approach seeking resolution of workrelated disputes specific to women’s workplace issues.
The feminist movement appears to have the best chance for high levels of mobilization and activity” (Zald, 1988, 19). Addressing issues of movement change but emphasizing that change does not imply decline, Nancy Whittier suggests that in the 1980s individual feminists searched for new ways to be activists in the face of mounting opposition, financial difficulty and their own aging. She found that women’s movement has not only survived but begun grow again in important ways in the 1990s with new generational membership, renewed community presence and also increased access to the political system (1995, 3).
The result has been to exacerbate the differences between poor women and others; feminist activism has been unable to effectively address such fundamental barriers to equality for working women and poor women (Ferree and Hess, 2000, 207). On the brighter side, other measures of policy success are to be found in organizational survival as well as cultural change, perhaps the most enduring forms of transformation (Staggenborg, 1991). In addition to the coalitions and networks discussed earlier and the staying power they represent at the national and state level, the ability of the movement to mass hundreds of thousands in support of reproductive access is indicative of significant vigor.