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By Yih-Jye Hwang

What's the inspiration of peace? This textbook goals to supply a finished and updated creation to experiences of peace and warfare, from either theoretical and empirical views.

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Despite this caveat, states represent an important analytical category because once a government has decided on war we can usually analyse the state it represents as a largely unified actor that brings important resources to bear. In trying to explain the occurrence of war, we will look at three state characteristics in particular: relative power, the nature of a state’s political system, and domestic politics. Although these characteristics have mainly been applied in order to analyse the behaviour of states, they can also be used to examine the behaviour of groups below or above the state level, such as secessionist rebel groups or interstate alliances.

Furthermore, they illustrate that the inclination toward team aggression is much lower in females than in males, and argue that this is due to the fact that in our evolutionary history such battles only benefitted males, by enlarging territories and eliminating rivals. Chimpanzees and bonobos both live in fusion-fission societies, where individuals move alone or in small groups of individuals, of which the composition changes constantly. All associations are temporary, except those between mothers and their offspring.

The only other mammal that behaves in a similar way to us is one of our closest relatives, the chimpanzee. The extremely violent raids against their rivals from neighbouring communities by groups of young male chimpanzees are disturbingly like human team aggression. The question is whether or not they can help us to understand our own wars. Our other close relative is the bonobo. Recent findings indicate that we are just as closely related to chimpanzees as to bonobos. 3 percent with either one of these apes (Prüfer et al.

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