By Raj Purushothama

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Ground Improvement Techniques

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Extra resources for Ground Improvement Techniques

Sample text

The throw can nowadays be fully controlled and estimated in advance, but not, on the other hand, the scattering. It has other affinities and does not for example necessarily increase with the charge. First some simple rough relations will be given to serve as a basis in estimating the results of a round. Fundamental investigations of the throw in blasting have been carried out by Forsberg and Gusta>sson. They have sho'vn that the total throwing f. 0 5 10 .......... --~~ O 5 15 20 25 yd. __~ 15 20 25 m.

8. Diam eter of drill holes, degree of packing The diameter of the hole does not in itself exercise any influence on the quantity of the charge required for breakage. 3 V from the bottom level. In the same way it holds good for the hole in its entirety that with a moderate variation in the diameter of the hole, but \vith unchanged concentration of the charge per meter the breaking force remains unaltered. 0 kg/dm 3 . 5 lb/ft in a 2" hole). The size of the charge per m at the bottom of the holes consequently alone decides how large a burden can be loosened.

The swelling can thus under common conditions dema;nd a larger quantity of explosive than just for loosening the rock and in the case of multiple-row rounds it is in all circumstances considerable. If we observe a case with uniform enlargement the share that corresponds to the required swelling is increased in proportion to V''. The law of conformity cannot, of course, be applied. Exa:mple. Blasting oI a bottom bench in a tunnel with ]{ - 8 m, V - 2 m. ::::'. 52 kg/m3. 84 kg/m 3 with the same ass1tmptions in other respects.