By Bernhard Maidl, Leonhard Schmid, Willy Ritz, Martin Herrenknecht, David S. Sturge
This e-book covers the basics of tunneling computing device know-how: drilling, tunneling, waste removing and securing. It treats tools of rock category for the equipment involved in addition to felony matters, utilizing various instance initiatives to mirror the country of expertise, in addition to frustrating instances and suggestions. The paintings is established such that readers are led from the fundamentals through the most sensible parts of tunneling equipment to the differing kinds of computing device, including their parts of program and kit. the result's an summary of present developments.
Close cooperation one of the authors concerned has created a publication of equivalent curiosity to skilled tunnelers and newbies.
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Additional resources for Hardrock tunnel boring machines
The grading curves of the tunnel muck are shown in Fig. 3-15. Figure 3-14 Chip-shaped muck from a TBM The spacing of the cutters of the TBM used in the trials with a diameter of 5 m was 86 mm. These spacing was increased 150 % to 129 mm and 200 % to 176 mm. In granite with compressive strength in the region of 200 to 250 Mpa, the sand component in the muck was reduced in favour of larger components. The increased spacing led to thicker and still more to longer chips. In Fig. 3-16, axis a) is the longitudinal axis, axis b) is the width and axis c) is the thickness of the chips.
The necessary control and ancillary functions are connected to this basic construction on one or more trailers. So there are the following four system groups (Fig. 2-1) : . . 1 Boring System The boring system is the most important and determines the performance of a TBM. It consists essentially of cutter housings with disc cutters, which are mounted on a cutter head. 1 Basic Principles and Construction 17 Figure 2-1 System groups of a tunnel boring machine 1 Boring system 2 Thrust and clamping system 3 Muck removal system 4 Support system The discs are so arranged that they contact the entire cutting face in concentric tracks when the cutter head turns.
The capability to cut rock up to 300 MPa enables TBMs to be used in most hard rock. The higher investment cost of TBM driving compared with conventional drilling and blasting can only be compensated by higher advance rates. A greater length of drive is also necessary. If, however, the wear rate of the tools increases too much on account of the rock strength or other negative parameters, frequent cutter changing can lead to high downtime. This reduces the active working time considerably, which is an essential characteristic of the efficiency of the machine.