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By Pennsylvania State University US Dept of Energy

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TOTT1977] consider only tempering temperature and as-quenched hardness and therefore may not be useful for predicting final properties for many other heat treatment types used by steel foundries. al. [TOTT1977] Totten et al. [TOTT1977] Any composition Any Microstructure 1 hr Not Considered Any composition Martensite 2 hrs Not Considered Any composition Martensite - Not Considered Any composition Any Microstructure Any time Not Considered Alloy Grade Martensite Initial microstructure prior to tempering is a particularly important consideration for predicting the final tempered properties of steel castings.

50 Table XXI: Tempered hardness variations due to tempering temperature variations for 8630 steel of nominal composition. Estimated with the Creusot Loire tempering model [MAYN1978]. The tempering temperature is 1150F. 5HB +/- 25F +/- 7HB +/- 50F +/- 6HB +/- 100F +/- 39HB Because control of tempering time and temperature are critical to the properties of a steel casting, steel foundries wishing to control final tempered hardness face the same temperature uniformity and temperature ramp-up issues discussed previously during austenitizing.

The overall mass of the parts to be quenched compared to the size of the quench tank strongly influences the ability of a quench tank to adequately extract heat. Figure 17 illustrates the effect of mass as well as section size on cooling rates during water quenching. 3 Quench Delay The literature is noticeably silent on the influence of heat treatment conditions and practices on temperature drops of casting loads during quench delays. This is compounded by the fact that surface temperatures of oxidized casting surfaces may be lower than the actual casting surface temperature.

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