By Ajay Kumar Saxena (auth.)
The current ebook goals at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors stumbled on through Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The booklet covers the superconductivity phenomenon, constitution of high-Tc superconductors, severe currents, synthesis routes for top Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity influence and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and functions of superconductors.
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Additional info for High-Temperature Superconductors
The Gibbs free energy F can be expanded as F (T, V, ns ) = F (T, V, 0) + αns + (1/2)βn2s . 65) Since F is to be minimum, therefore ∂2F > 0. 65)). To obtain a phase transition of second kind, we assume α(Tc ) = 0; β(Tc ) > 0, ∂α α(T ) = (T − Tc ) ∂T . 66) T =Tc (for T < Tc , α(T ) < 0 and β(T ) > 0). 64), we have Fs = Fn − α2 . 67) Hc2 . 8π so, we have α2 H2 = c. 2β 8π Here, ns is always constant and the magnetic ﬁeld enters as a term free energy of the superconducting phase. 15 Ginzberg–Landau Theory 31 Since ψ is a kind of eﬀective wave function, in presence of an external 2 magnetic ﬁeld H, the free energy will not only increase by H 8π per unit volume, but also by an extra term connected by the gradient of ψ (because ψ is not rigid in the presence of the magnetic ﬁeld).
83) Clearly ΔFgain dominates for λ > ξ as in a type-II superconductor. When H exceeds Hc1 , the free energy is lowered by maximising the S/N interface area (H > Hc1 ⇒ B = 0). Flux enters at H > Hc1 and according to Abrikosov, it does so in the form of ﬂux vortices, which assume a triangular lattice structure to minimise their interaction energy. For Hc1 < H < Hc2 , we have this intermediate phase or Shubnikov phase. At Hc1 , the ﬁrst vortex is nucleated and with increasing ﬁeld, their equilibrium separation is reduced, such that at Hc2 the normal cores overlap and then, bulk of the material turns normal (Fig.
5 could be explained by Eliasberg theory, taking into consideration the competition between (1) electron-phonon interaction and (2) the Coulomb-repulsion. 11 Isotope Eﬀect in HTSCs Many experimental data indicate that the new high Tc oxides display many features of the BCS theory, such as carrier pairing and the presence of an energy gap. The pairing is caused by some intermediate ﬁeld (may be other excitations like plasmons, excitons or magnons). It still remains to ﬁgure out, which of these excitations are responsible for inter-electron attraction.