By Neta Crawford, Audie Klotz
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Mzamo Mangaliso compares disinvestment to the corporate codes of conduct adopted by a number of multinational corporations in the 1970s and 1980s. Xavier Carim, Audie Klotz, and Olivier Lebleu examine financial sanctions, in particular looking at the sources and consequences of South Africa’s debt crisis in the late 1980s. They show how financial restrictions undermined business confidence in South Africa and sharpened divisions among the white elite. Tshidiso Maloka assesses the impact of trade sanctions and disinvestment on black workers.
Audie Klotz investigates South Africa’s diplomatic isolation, showing how sanctions undermined apartheid and bolstered the legitimacy of the transnational anti-apartheid movement. David Black explores the impact of the sport boycott and Nomazengele Mangaliso examines the boycott of South African culture and academics. Black and Mangaliso emphasize the educational role that sanctions played inside and outside South Africa, and the fact that both sport and culture were points of Afrikaner pride and vulnerability.
5 If the target is autarkic in military and economic resources, and therefore relatively invulnerable, sanctions will not work. The normative communication model, articulated more or less implicitly by many policymakers, suggests that elites and populations respond to moral arguments. 6 Sanctioners aim to affect the worldviews of the target’s elite decision makers and general population. Thus, for sanctions to work, decision makers must understand 28 How Sanctions Work and be persuaded by normative arguments.