By C. McQueen
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Additional info for Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones: Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda
It can be characterized by distinctiveness or sameness, and states may possess multiple identities. For example, France has an identity that derives in part from pride in its language, culture and long historical association with human rights. Its identity also reﬂects its membership in the European Union (EU): it shares the same respect for democracy and civil liberties as other members of the EU do, as codiﬁed for example in social charters and human rights documents. 77 In other words, norms help forge a state’s identity, and, in turn, a state’s identity will determine which community interests it holds to be important.
As the death toll climbed to a staggering 1,000 persons a day,11 a process of gradual international humanitarian involvement occurred, culminating in a safe haven approach. 12 Meanwhile France spearheaded the effort to build a consensus among the permanent members of the Security Council that permitted the adoption of resolution 688 on 5 April 1991, which speciﬁed that the Council: 1. Condemns the repression of the Iraqi civilian population in many parts of Iraq, including more recently in Kurdish populated areas, the 28 Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones consequences of which threaten international peace and security in the region; 2.
As discussed in Chapter 1, these rules have been accorded a generality of standing in international law, meaning that third parties are permitted, but not necessarily required, to become involved when transgressions are taking place. In other words, the fact that violations of humanitarian law have occurred is likely to enhance state tolerance toward intervention. 41 Third, the coalition pursued the safe haven policy in a manner consistent with community interests, thus increasing the legitimacy of the operation, as well as its level of acceptance among states.