By Alan Lucas, Maria Makrides, Ekhard E. Ziegler
Progress is universally utilized by wellbeing and fitness care execs and caregivers to pass judgement on the actual of infants and kids: terrible progress in formative years has a detrimental influence on cognitive improvement and morbidity, while fast and over the top progress is linked to the next incidence of weight problems and heart problems. This booklet explores in a few aspect the connection among early progress styles and later neurodevelopment, weight problems, cardiovascular results and sturdiness in either industrialized and semi-industrialized societies. It involves 3 components that every offers with a particular subject: the 1st half makes a speciality of the relationship among early development and weight problems and cardiovascular results. the following part concentrates at the interrelationship among progress and neurological improvement, and the final half is devoted to the keep watch over and evaluate of actual progress. Bringing jointly the specialist critiques of remarkable clinicians and scientists, this e-book could be of specific worth for pediatricians, public well-being scientists and epidemiologists.
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Additional resources for Importance of Growth for Health and Development (Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series: Pediatric Program)
Dr. Lucas: In the neonatal period in humans, there are quite a number of quite defined unmarked hormonal surges, testosterone, gut hormones and so forth. Are you saying that there isn’t a leptin surge or that hasn’t been looked at? Dr. Bouret: Several papers have looked at leptin levels and reported elevated levels of leptin during both pre- and postnatal life in humans. However, there was no clear indication of distinct leptin surge, as it has been reported in rodents. It does not mean that there is no leptin surge in humans, it just means that it has not been detected yet.
Cell Metab 2008;7:179–185. 25 Delahaye F, Breton C, Risold P-Y, et al: Maternal perinatal undernutrition drastically reduces postnatal leptin surge and affects the development of arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin neurons in neonatal male rat pups. Endocrinology 2008;149:470–475. 26 Plagemann A, Waas T, Harder T, Rittel F, Ziska T, Rohde W: Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y levels in weaning offspring of low-protein malnourished mother rats. Neuropeptides 2000;34:1– 6. 27 Varma A, He J, Weissfeld L, Devaskar SU: Postnatal intracerebroventricular exposure to neuropeptide Y causes weight loss in female adult rats.
In rodents, it appears that the period of maximal 36 Hormones, Nutrition, and Hypothalamic Development sensitivity for leptin starts during the embryonic life and ends around the first 2–3 weeks of life. In humans, it is believed that brain development is finished at birth, so one may think that the critical period for leptin’s actions in humans may be restricted to late gestation. In fact, Dr. Lucas mentioned this morning that the environment during late gestation is more critical for brain development than the early postnatal life.