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The functional barriers included, for example, confusion from messages in various media; the lack of skills to prepare healthy food; limited choice of healthy options in convenience foods; lack of knowledge on what foods are healthy; and a restricted availability of appetising, fresh products. The psychological barriers were beliefs that eating in an unhealthy way is okay if one is not ill or over-weight; beliefs that diet-related illness could not happen to oneself; pressures or desires to fit in with the food habits of others; beliefs that it is no use to eat in a healty way only on occasion and thus no use to do it at all, and laziness or lack of motivation.

Consumers today are not only more knowledgeable; they are also more confused. For the consumers, the result has been not only confusion but sometimes also rejection of reasonable recommendations. College students were examined on how they understand popular press reports on health research results. The subjects read photocopies of newspaper and magazine articles reporting research findings on, for example, heart disease or breast cancer. They were then asked to answer a questionnaire which measured their understanding of the article’s content, as well as their ability to recognise correct and incorrect application of the study results.

5. Effect approach (recipient-oriented), which places ‘information’ with the recipient instead of with the communicator and states that ‘information’ occurs only as a specific effect of a specific or unspecific process. 6. Process approach, which does not see ‘information’ as a component of a process but as a process itself. The most important distinction between different definitions of the concept of information is − according to Capurro and Hjørland (2003) − that between information as an object or a thing and information as a subjective concept, as a sign.

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