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Spectral lines are particularly numerous at these frequencies. Several considerations are more important at millimeter wavelengths than at centimeter wavelengths. Because the wavelengths are much shorter, any irregularity in the atmospheric path length results in a proportionately greater effect on the signal phase. Attenuation in the neutral atmosphere is much more serious at millimeter wavelengths. Also, the beams of the individual antennas become narrower at shorter wavelengths, and maintenance of a sufficiently wide field of view is one reason why the antenna diameter tends to decrease with increasing frequency.

6 be represented by V sin(2lr uot). The longer path length to the left-hand antenna introduces a time delay t = ( D / c )sin 8, where D is the antenna spacing, 8 is the angular position of the source, and c is the velocity of light. Thus, the signal from the left-hand antenna is V sin[2nvo(t - t)]. 10) we can ignore terms in harmonics of 217uor, which represent radio frequencies. The detector output is therefore F = V 2 [1 + cos(2nuor)]. 6 (a) Simple interferometer in which the signals are combined additively.

1994). The VLBA is often linked with additional antennas to form even larger arrays. A problem in VLBI observations is that the use of nonsynchronized local oscillators complicates the calibration of the phase of the fringes. To overcome this problem, the phase closure relationship of Eq. 13) was first applied to VLBI data by Rogers et al. (1974). The technique rapidly developed into a method to obtain images known as hybrid mapping. For examples of hybrid mapping, see Figs. 20. This and related procedures are also used in mapping with connected-element0 arrays and are discussed in Chapter 11.

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