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As digital designers pack a growing number of circuits onto a unmarried chip to create more and more complicated units, they run right into a daunting main issue: intermodulation distortion. This distortion happens whilst circuits are too heavily put jointly and their working frequencies start to intervene with one another. This guide addresses all facets of intermodulation distortion. From the fundamentals of circuit layout, to state-of-the-art concepts, it bargains practitioners hands-on advice for his or her not easy initiatives.

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Having already classified the distortion components arising from a multitone test, we will now describe its most used characterization standards. This naturally includes multitone intermodulation ratio, cochannel and adjacent-channel power ratios. 1 Multitone Intermodulation Ratio Beginning with a generalization of the IMR concept introduced with two-tone tests, we now bring in the multitone intermodulation ratio (M-IMR). 16 Illustration of multitone intermodulation ratio definition. 2 Adjacent-Channel Power Ratio According to the explanation given above, adjacent-channel distortion is composed of all distortion components falling on the adjacent-channel location.

18) would be to consider a random phase for each tone and then repeat this procedure for several phase arrangements, finishing with an average of all the resulting output time waveforms [12]. 13(a). Now, suppose another 10-tone signal were generated in a way that all the carriers are related in phase, as is the case of multitones produced by phase-locked synthesized sources or by digital arbitrary waveform generators. 13(b). 13(a). These differences in peak-to-average ratio would be even bigger if the number of tones considered were increased.

B) Second-Order Response. (c) Third-Order Response (a) m −2 1 0 0 0 Mixing Vector m −1 m1 m2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Frequency Component—␻ x −␻ 2 −␻ 1 ␻1 ␻2 Output Amplitude 1/2 a 1 A 2 1/2 a 1 A 1 1/2 a 1 A 1 1/2 a 1 A 2 Type of Response Linear Linear Linear Linear (b) m −2 2 Mixing Vector m −1 m1 m2 0 0 0 Frequency Component—␻ x −2␻ 2 Output Amplitude 1/4 a 2 A 22 0 2 0 0 −2␻ 1 0 0 2 0 2␻ 1 Type of Response Second-order harmonic distortion 0 0 0 2 2␻ 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 −␻ 1 − ␻ 2 ␻1 − ␻2 ␻2 − ␻1 ␻1 + ␻2 1/4 a 2 A 22 1/2 a 2 A 1 A 2 1/2 a 2 A 1 A 2 1/2 a 2 A 1 A 2 1/2 a 2 A 1 A 2 0 1 1 0 ␻1 − ␻1 1/2 a 2 A 12 1 0 0 1 ␻2 − ␻2 1/2 a 2 A 22 (c) m −2 Mixing Vector m −1 m1 m2 Frequency Component—␻ x Output Amplitude 1/4 a 2 A 12 1/4 a 2 A 12 a 3 A 23 a 3 A 13 a 3 A 13 a 3 A 23 3 0 0 0 −3␻ 2 1/8 0 3 0 0 −3␻ 1 1/8 0 0 3 0 3␻ 1 1/8 0 0 0 3 3␻ 2 1/8 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 −2␻ 2 − ␻ 1 −2␻ 1 − ␻ 2 3/8 a 3 A 1 A 22 3/8 a 3 A 12 A 2 2 0 1 0 −2␻ 2 + ␻ 1 3/8 a 3 A 1 A 22 0 2 0 1 1 0 2 0 −2␻ 1 + ␻ 2 2␻ 1 − ␻ 2 3/8 a 3 A 12 A 2 3/8 a 3 A 12 A 2 0 1 0 2 2␻ 2 − ␻ 1 3/8 a 3 A 1 A 22 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 2 2␻ 1 + ␻ 2 2␻ 2 + ␻ 1 3/8 a 3 A 12 A 2 3/8 a 3 A 1 A 22 2 0 0 1 −2␻ 2 + ␻ 2 3/8 a 3 A 23 0 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 −2␻ 1 + ␻ 1 2␻ 1 − ␻ 1 3/8 a 3 A 13 3/8 a 3 A 13 1 0 0 2 2␻ 2 − ␻ 2 3/8 a 3 A 23 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 −␻ 2 + ␻ 1 − ␻ 1 −␻ 1 + ␻ 2 − ␻ 2 3/4 a 3 A 12 A 2 3/4 a 3 A 1 A 22 1 0 1 1 ␻1 + ␻2 − ␻2 3/4 a 3 A 1 A 22 0 1 1 1 ␻2 + ␻1 − ␻1 3/4 a 3 A 12 A 2 Second-order intermodulation distortion Shift of bias point Type of Response Third-order harmonic distortion Third-order intermodulation distortion AM/AM conversion (gain compression or expansion AM/PM conversion) Cross-modulation and desensitization 24 Introduction itself, enough material to fill up many books.

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