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By J.W. Edington

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3 = [001]. 1. Most of these loops change size on reversing g and this behaviour may be used to obtain the vacancy /interstitial nature of the loops. 22. The loop has outside contrast for (a), (c) [Courtesy of B. 2. There are difficulties arising from elastic anisotropy. 8) provided that more than one g • b = 0 situation is obtained together with at least one g • b # 0 situation. 3 for straight dislocations. 6) which is a useful property that enables this confusion to be minimised. 26. 6. 26(d) and (e), g • b # 0 for (b) and (c), despite the 'residual' contrast in (b) because the image in (c) (opposite g) is very different.

L +ve ,. ----~~-----. 27 A schematic diagram illustrating the reversal of BF and DF image contrast with depth for a Frank (a) vacancy, (b) interstitial loop. (c)-(e) These show real (E) and computer-simulated (S) images of edge loops 46 A in diameter and located in layer 6, (a), (b). IJ and w = 0. [III] and g • b = 0, (d) b = t[OII] g • b = I and (e) b [100] g • b = 2 [(c)- (e) Courtesy of B. L. Eyre] 36 Practical Electron Microscopy loops with a misfit parameter P ~ 1 further contrast calculations are necessary to determine image behaviour, preferably not using the infinitesimal loop approximation.

A) (001) and (b) (102) projections [Courtesy of B. L. Eyre] least two different B ("' 20-30° apart) must be used for the same ± g pair and different ± g pairs obtained for the two B. It should be emphasised that considerable difficulty will be encountered for loop diameters ;$ 200 A. Nevertheless, if the method described in the previous section is used, bearing in mind points (1)-(3) above, and provided complete selfconsistency is demanded quite reliable evaluations have been reported for loop diameters, "'100 A in copper and molybdenum (Barry and Eyre, 1970; Barry and Maher, 1970; Maher and Eyre, 1971).

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