By Jonathan C. Evenick
Subsurface mapping is how to visualize quite a few geologic and hydrologic good points in any size from a 1-D pass part to a 4-D construction map. All subsurface map varieties may be worthy, however the secret's to grasp what you're investigating and what map kinds are so much appropriate.
This new e-book introduces forms of geophysical logs and subsurface maps that may be generated from easy good information, and subsurface difficulties that may be solved utilizing geophysical logs and subsurface maps. "Hands-on" routines show how each one map kind is generated and what purposes they might have. routines on the finish of every bankruptcy introduce types of wells and lithologies
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Additional resources for Introduction to Well Logs and Subsurface Maps
Indb 19 2/21/08 3:47:58 PM 20 Introduction to Well Logs and Subsurface Maps Resistivity A resistivity log records the resistivity, or resistance, to the ﬂow of electricity through a formation in Ohm meters (Ωm). Resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity and is related to the porosity and the amount and kind of ﬂuid present in the rock and borehole. The most important use of resistivity logs is in distinguishing hydrocarbons from water. A high-porosity or hydrocarbonbearing formation has high resistivity; a low-porosity or saltwater formation has low resistivity.
These maps, however, can rule out structural features and quickly identify thickening trends related to deposition. Linear trends are probably related to large-scale depositional patterns, and irregular (ﬁg. 4–5) or bull’s-eye patterns could indicate reefs or dissolution features. A cross section through the target interval and lithologic correlations will help constrain an inferred geologic model. Lateral facies changes indicate large-scale depositional patterns, whereas localized thickened or facies changes associated with less well-deﬁned trends, point to possible reefs, dissolution, or dewatering features.
A type log must be from a well that has a complete and unfaulted section. STRATIGRAPHIC INTERPRETATIONS Stratigraphic features are often more diﬃcult to delineate and identify in the subsurface. Commonly, these features need to be interpreted using both structure contour maps and isopach maps. To help recognize bedding attitudes, dipmeter data or formation micro-scanner (FMS) logs are required. A FMS log creates a 360° synthetic representation of the borehole wall using small resistivity variations.