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By S.Waqar Ahmed Husaini

Publication by way of Husaini, S. Waqar Ahmed

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Extra resources for Islamic Environmental Systems Engineering: A systems study of environmental engineering, and the law, politics, education, economics and sociology of science and culture of Islam

Example text

AH 456/AD 1064): 'The sharf'a in its entirety refers either to obligatory acts (farr)), the omission of which constitutes a sin; or to forbidden acts (flaram), the commission of which constitutes a sin; or to allowed acts (mubafl), the commission or omission of which does not make a man a sinner. '" Thus the 'shan'a concerns itself exclusively with what the Law-Giver has ordained in unmistakable terms' as fard or tJaram; 'whereas the far larger area of things and activities which the Law-Giver has left unspecified ...

1) Mathematical sciences and (2) logic. Nothing in them is relevant to sharf'a matters 'either to deny or affirm them'. (3) Natural sciences or 'physics'. These sciences are also muba/:1 and ma/:lmud like the two above except with regard to the twenty major errors of 'philosophers' pointed out by al-Ghazali. ( 4) Theology or metaphysics. 'Here occur most of the errors of the philosophers' because they are 'unable to satisfy the conditions of proof they lay down in logic'.

1) Mathematical sciences and (2) logic. Nothing in them is relevant to sharf'a matters 'either to deny or affirm them'. (3) Natural sciences or 'physics'. These sciences are also muba/:1 and ma/:lmud like the two above except with regard to the twenty major errors of 'philosophers' pointed out by al-Ghazali. ( 4) Theology or metaphysics. 'Here occur most of the errors of the philosophers' because they are 'unable to satisfy the conditions of proof they lay down in logic'.

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