By National Research Council
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Extra info for Issues in the Integration of Research and Operationsl Satellite Systems for Climate Research: Science and Design (Compass Series (Washington, D.C.).)
Other small sensors also 14 ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH may be flown. NPP will support early testing and evaluation of critical instruments and algorithms for NPOESS. Research requirements for selected NASA data sets have also been included in the NPP sensor requirements. The NPP mission may also demonstrate advanced technology options developed by NASA. Thus, NPP provides the opportunity to blend science and operational requirements while bridging between the first EOS series and NPOESS.
These sounding data products have direct and obvious climatological value. However, radiance assimilation at operational prediction centers no longer carries out explicit retrievals in the traditional sense. These sounding products are now derived as outputs from NWP models. Whether the optimal use of new-generation, higher-spectral-resolution sounding data will continue the present trend of using radiance data directly is still an open issue. Nevertheless, the value of carefully calibrated radiance data not only for assimilation purposes, but also as a resource for climate data, clearly emerges from all current studies.
Another important factor in the retrieval of moisture soundings concerns the accuracy of the forward model used to simulate the measured spectral radiances. The major source of error in water vapor retrievals does not stem from radiance calibration errors but rather from errors of the forward model. These errors remain large, and efforts are now under way to establish some understanding of their nature. Radiance Data Product Issues Operational sounders have provided continuous, quasi-global data since the late 1970s with the launch of the first version of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS).