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By David A. Welch

During this significant research of the motives of struggle, David Welch argues that, opposite to the acquired knowledge in educational and coverage circles, states are usually inspired via honest difficulty for the perceived calls for of justice, no longer only through self curiosity. by way of reading the outbreak of 5 nice energy wars (the Crimean battle, the Franco-Prussian battle, global struggle I, global conflict II, and the Falklands War), Welch demonstrates the significance of the justice rationale in country habit, utilizing either ancient and philosophical research to shed new gentle on an previous challenge.

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6. An actor operating on the basis of the justice motive will be more tolerant of other states' gains if they are perceived to be legitimate entitlements, and less tolerant of other states' gains if they are perceived to violate entitlements. The net effect of these dynamics is that - all other things being equal states motivated by a concern for justice should be more likely to go to war than states that do not perceive a discrepancy between entitlements and assets, under specific circumstances: namely, when other states challenge their subjective conceptions of entitlements, and when institutions and procedures for resolving international disputes 31 JUSTICE AND THE GENESIS OF WAR enjoy insufficient legitimacy to permit a peaceful adjustment of those differences.

Second, the justice motive differs from loss aversion or appetite for gain prescriptively; the desire to do justice and to see justice done leads to a different net pattern of behavior than we would observe if people simply attempted to avoid losses or secure gains. 57 Most of us can recall at least one occasion in our lives when a sales clerk has given us too much change; the justice motive - not an aversion to loss or appetite for gain - is what leads us to return the difference between what the clerk gives us and what we are owed.

These biases 26 THE JUSTICE MOTIVE AND WAR and errors are a function of the fact that the goals, intentions, and calculations of others are rarely obvious, and must be inferred. Inferences of this kind involve interpretations, often based on confusing or modest behavioral clues. Such interpretations face important hermeneutical barriers. 79 But psychologists have suggested that people invoke a number of shorthands or surrogates to compensate for the difficulties of interpretation. " When ambiguous information may be interpreted in a number of disparate ways, we tend to interpret it in accordance with whatever is in the forefront of our minds at that moment.

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