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By Michael Zurn

Arguing that criminal ideas may be carried out past nationwide barriers, this quantity examines compliance past the countryside. 4 participants examine compliance with laws which were formulated in a truly related manner at diversified degrees of governance. They reveal that state states don't inevitably demonstrate the simplest compliance files and excessive measure of legalization, verification and sanctioning platforms appear to be extra very important.

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These features are properties of the national context as such and do not vary from one issue area to the next. The first of those features is the communality aspect, according to which questions of law and justice can only be dealt with meaningfully within communities that share common values and ideas. This variable is easy to assess. According to the Communalists, such communities are closely bound to nations with shared memories and shared traditions. In the international context, such communities have hardly developed at all.

In other words, horizontal coercion can function as an equivalent to material hierarchy. A sustainable regulation depends, however, on a number of additional conditions that make horizontal coercion effective in the first place. It is in this regard that international institutions, once established, gain an independent role and are of the utmost importance in international politics. These conditions can be derived from secondary co-operation problems, that is the costs involved in constructing and maintaining a regulation (Axelrod and Keohane 1985; Keohane 1984; Martin 1993; Ostrom 1990; Zangl 1999; and Zurn ¨ 1992).

These two components of legalization are closely related to each other and develop their dynamics only in interaction (see Stone and Caporaso 1998). Legalization beyond the nation-state is most developed if (i) there has been a significant delegation of the power to implement rules to agents with some degree of autonomy, (ii) the supremacy of the international or transnational law is accepted and is ideally backed up by direct effect, and (iii) the rules are individually and directly actionable.

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