By Gaston Bachelard

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Extra resources for Le rationalisme appliqué, 3e édition

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1. 67 and actual values of filter thickness and porosity. This work demonstrates that applying the fibrous filter model to membranes is not ideal yet certainly can develop an understanding of the effect of the filter parameters on performance. This is especially useful since the complex structure of cast membrane filters is not well described by simple pore models. The Nucleporetype filter's performance can be preqicted best by using the capillary pore model. The flow pressure drop model assumes that the membrane is traversed by parallel capillaries.

These filter models are often applied by including an inhomogeneity factor, €. This correction is included in the overall efficiency equations as follows: (21 ) The inhomogeneity factor is an estimation of the nonuniformity of a real filter and is defined as the ratio of the drag forces acting per unit fiber length or pressure drop and model filter or: (22) . E =-'Yl or 'Ylst E = d P theoretical ~ Pexperimental \tVhere: 77 77st theoretical single particle efficiency actual single particle efficiency.

10 Plch ) have defined the Stokes number with respect to the fiber diameter. For potential flow, the single-fiber collection efficiency resulting from impaction is a function of the Stokes number only. In a viscous flow field, this collection is a function of both the Reynolds number and the Stokes number for an isolated cylinder (single fiber) in a system of cylinders. The packing density is also important. The single fiber efficiency curves in Figure 9 (17st = single fiber efficiency due to inertial impaction) were originally developed for the interpretation of measurement of droplet sizes in supercooled clouds.