By John Floras, T. Douglas Bradley
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In regards to the ProductPublished by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic learn sequence. Species within the genera Hyarachna, Echinozone, Pseudarachna, and Aspidarachna, all within the kin Hyarachnidae, are reviewed and severely mentioned. A key to genera is gifted in addition to a desk of the species in every one genus from antarctic waters.
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Extra resources for Lung Biology in Health & Disease Volume 146 Sleep Apnea: Implications in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
From Ref. ) Inﬂuence of Respiration on HR and BP 9 crease in heart rate during inspiration and contribute to the slowing of heart rate during expiration. In conclusion, experimental manipulations of the magnitude and/or direction of intrathoracic pressure change during inspiration point to an important role for arterial baroreﬂexes in causing RSA. This modulatory inﬂuence is sometimes difﬁcult to discern because the aortic arch and carotid sinus baroreceptors can be differentially activated during breathing-related changes in intrathoracic pressure (46).
When lung inﬂation was stopped for one inspiratory phase, thereby eliminating the Breuer-Hering reﬂex, there was inspiratory prolongation but no change in slope of the integral of phrenic activity. However, there was an increase in the slope of the integrated sympathetic discharge. In addition, lung inﬂation was found to inhibit sympathetic discharge during both the inspiratory and expiratory phases of the phrenic discharge cycle. The Breuer-Hering reﬂex is clearly weaker in humans than in experimental animals (36,37); therefore, it is possible that there are also species differences in the role played by pulmonary stretch receptors in reﬂex control of the circulation.
Note that at normal Vt (20–30% of inspiratory capacity), a larger portion of sympathetic bursts occurred in the low (last 50% of expiration ϩ ﬁrst 50% of inspiration) vs. high (last 50% of inspiration ϩ ﬁrst 50% of expiration) lung-volume phases of the breath cycle in both intact subjects and transplant recipients. This low- to high-lung-volume MSNA difference widened at augmented Vt (50–60% inspiratory capacity) in the normal subjects, but not the transplant recipients. Diastolic blood pressure did not differ in the low- vs.