By Ye Shi-hui
Magnetism is among the uncomplicated houses of subject. Mankind has trav elled an extended highway in getting to know and using magnetism, and during this appreciate the traditional chinese language humans have made extraordinary contribu tions. within the ebook 'Lu's Spring and Autumn', written close to the top of the Warring States interval, i. e. within the 3rd century B. C. , there's a assertion at the "attraction of iron through lodestones". So at the moment it was once identified that magnets can allure ferromagnetic fabric. on the be ginning ofthe first century A. D. , viz. within the early years ofthe East cling Dynasty, the recognized student Wang Chong wrote in his masterpiece 'Len chicken' that the deal with of a magnetic dipper pointed to the south. It was once therefore chanced on on the time that magnets can element to the poles of the geomagnetic box. initially of the 12th century, throughout the reign of Emperor Hui of the Sung Dynasty, within the books written by way of Zhu Yo and Xu Jin, respectively, there are descriptions of the com move utilized in navigation. This tells us that the applying of compasses was once fairly common at the moment. the celebrated scientist Sen cross (1031-1085) came upon the declination of the terrestrial magnetic box. this can be 400 and extra years just before its discovery through Christopher Columbus in 1492 in the course of his voyage around the Atlantic Ocean. Such evidence as those occur the real contributions of historic China to worldwide civilization.
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2 SOURCES OF ERROR Since the method set up by Hale et al. is both simple and effective, it has been used in routine measurements by many astronomical institutions after the Mt. Wilson Observatory. Although all observers adopt the same method, the results of their measurements may differ significantly. Besides accidental errors, there are evident systematic discrepancies. 5-2 times larger than those of Mt. Wilson. 5 times smaller than the latter. Severny and Stepanov (1957) performed a detailed analysis of these circumstances.
14), for this case we can take the third Stokes parameter U to be permanently equal to zero. An outstanding merit of the Stokes parameters is the following. , Q = Q1 +Q2+' . '. This property greatly simplifies the problem of propagation of polarized radiation. ) The Poincare sphere is also a good tool for expressing the polarized radiation. It is a sphere with unit length as radius and various points on its surface represent different states of polarization. 8 is determined by the two parameters 2X and 2w, where X is the azimuth of elliptically polarized light and w is a measure of ellipticity.
Is the residual intensity of the spectral line. Substituting Eq. 34 x 10 -5 led ar>. a).. g).. 2 B. 8) This tells us that 8F is proportional to B. If two identical photomultipliers are placed behind SI and S2 and their signals are sent to a difference amplifier, then after narrow-band amplification it is possible to record the value of 8F and also that of B. Eq. 8) shows that 8F is also proportional to Ie. Therefore, the limb darkening of the Sun and the variation in the terrestrial atmosphere can also influence the results of measurements.