By Balcom, Bruce; Price, William; Webb, Andrew G
Magnetic resonance platforms are utilized in nearly each educational and business chemistry, physics and biochemistry division, in addition to being the most vital imaging modalities in scientific radiology. The layout of such platforms has develop into more and more subtle through the years. Static magnetic fields raise regularly, large-scale arrays of obtain components are actually ubiquitous in medical MRI, cryogenic expertise has develop into usual in excessive answer NMR and is increasing speedily in preclinical MRI, really expert excessive energy magnetic box gradients were designed for learning the human connectome, and the economic introduction of ultra-high box human imaging has required new varieties of RF coils and static shim coils including vast electromagnetic simulations to make sure sufferer safety.
This publication covers the and engineering that constitutes a magnetic resonance method, even if that be a high-resolution liquid or reliable kingdom procedure for NMR spectroscopy, a preclinical approach for imaging animals or a medical procedure used for human imaging. Written via a workforce of specialists within the box, this e-book presents a entire and educational examine all points of present magnetic resonance expertise, in addition to outlooks for destiny developments.
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Extra info for Magnetic resonance technology: hardware and system component design
15. Optimization of the currents through the shim coils can be performed in two different ways. 4. 8 Gradient Coils Magnetic field gradient coils, a term usually shortened to simply “gradient coils”, are designed to produce a linear dependence of the effective magnetic field on spatial position. They consist of shaped conductors (wires or thin sheets) through which current passes to produce the gradient field. In 20 Chapter 1 high-resolution NMR probes, a single z-axis gradient coil is usually integrated into the RF probe, although three-axis gradients can also be present.
18 Pulse sequences for double quantum filtered (DQF) and triple quan- tum filtered (TQF) magnitude COSY spectra. The sequence of RF pulses is identical for both experiments. In the DQF experiment, the double quantum coherence created by the second 90° pulse is dephased by gradient Gd and the detected single quantum coherence is rephased by gradient Gr. If Gr = 2Gd, then DQ coherence only is refocused, if Gr = 3Gd then TQ coherence only is refocused. 3 M easurements of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients Using Gradients The phase evolution of transverse magnetization when a gradient is applied can also be used to measure the molecular diffusion coefficient of a sample.
Hodgkinson, Solid State NMR: Basic Principles & Practice, Momentum Press, 2012. P. T. Callaghan, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy, Clarendon Press, 1991. Z. P. Liang and P. C. Lauterbur, Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Signal Processing Perspective, John Wiley & Sons, 1999. M. A. Bernstein, K. F. Z. King and X. J. Zhou, Handbook of MRI pulse sequences, Academic Press, 2004. R. W. Brown, Y. C. Cheng, E. M. Haake, M. R. Thompson and R. Venkatesan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Properties and Sequence Design, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.