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Unguris, R. J. Celotta and D. T. Pierce, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2734 (1997). P. A. Gru¨nberg, Sensors & Actuators A 91, 153 (2001). M. A. Ruderman and C. Kittel, Phys. Rev. 96, 99 (1954). C. Kittel, Quantum Theory of Solids (New York: Wiley, 1963), p. 360. L. Ne´el and C. R. Hebd, Seances Acad. Sci. 255, 1545 (1962). L. Ne´el and C. R. Hebd, Seances Acad. Sci. 255, 1676 (1962). L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Sov. Phys. 8, 153 (1935). T. L. Gilbert, Phys. Rev. 100, 1243 (1995). 1 Introduction The first part of this chapter describes the edge effects of patterned ferromagnetic films.

The hysteresis loop is shifted in the opposite direction from the cooling field. In 1996, Nogue´s, Lederman, Moran and Schuller studied the FM/AFM (Fe/FeF2) bilayer structure and discovered a positive exchange bias [13]. The Fe2þ ions in FeF2 form a body-centered tetragonal (bct) crystal structure, and FeF2 has a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy along the c-axis. 13. The HE dependence of Hfc at T ¼ 10 K for three different growth Fe/FeF2 temperatures. □ grown at 200  C; grown at 250  C; ○ grown at 300  C.

I ¼ Æz U ; a2 ð2:96Þ where U is the interfacial exchange parameter, a is the cubic lattice constant and z is a number of order unity. The random field model argues that a net average interfacial energy will exist. The average s in a region of area X2 will go down statistically as i  $ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi : ð2:97Þ X2= 2 a Although obtaining a domain of size X would lower the random field energy, KAFM will limit the domain size. The anisotropy energy confines the domain width, and creates an additional surface energy of the domain wall.

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