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By O. Richmond

This learn explores 3 generations of methods to finishing clash and examines how, within the context of the flaws of the Westphalian overseas approach, their peacekeeping, mediation and negotiation, clash answer and peacebuilding methods in addition to UN peace operations, and asks through an empirical and theoretical research, what function such ways have performed and are enjoying in replicating a global procedure susceptible to intractable sorts of clash.

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Human rights versus political interests; 3. International society versus strategic interest; 4. The balance between state sovereignty, individual identity and personal sovereignty; 5. The role of IOs/ ROs and NGOs; 6. A shift of focus towards civil societies and their perceptions; 7. The gradual emergence of what has been described as a global civil society constituted non-state actors working on a range of human security issues; 8. The re-emergence of normative issues as global and regional concerns of states and individuals; 9.

Realists would argue that this is the best that can be achieved, while liberalist opponents would argue that this is the reason why so little is achieved. Security, therefore, was defined by the realist school as pertaining to the relations between states, and was to be guaranteed by global and regional balances of terror (power), which were to be managed, rather than eradicated. Realists and liberal analysts met with agreement upon the role of international organizations in setting guidelines for state behaviour, via a western view of the post-Second World War inter-- 24 Maintaining Order, Making Peace national system.

Consequently international law also becomes conceptually suspect and at odds with socio-political objectives of a humanitarian nature. It is at this point in the debate that the inscrutable logic of Realpolitik usually comes to the fore; yet if one looks at the peace process in Northern Ireland, this cycle can be reversed if the broader context (in this case within the European region) itself is secure and predictable, and alternative versions of sovereignty are recognized. Conflict, order, and peace in a changing environment As Linklater has argued, a post-Westphalian environment is not constituted by forces that steer actors towards ethical governance or universalism, but does indicate that totalizing projects, fragmentation and globalization have detached sovereignty from many of its `sub-issues' such as identity and culture.

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