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By Robert William Mecklenburg; Andrew Oram

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Variables, their order is preserved. So using $^ as in the previous example expands to the same files in the same order as the prerequisites list. This is true even when the prerequisites are split across multiple rules. In that case, the prerequisites of each rule are appended to the target prerequisite list in the order they are seen. A closely related problem is mutual reference between libraries, often referred to as circular references or circularities. Suppose a change is made and library B now references a symbol defined in library A.

For that reason, it is important to be very careful when setting these variables in your makefile. If you set these variables in a naive way, you destroy the end user’s ability to customize them. For instance, given this assignment in a makefile: CPPFLAGS = -I project/include The Implicit Rules Database This is the Title of the Book, eMatter Edition Copyright © 2005 O’Reilly & Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. 1376 Page 28 Friday, March 25, 2005 1:58 PM If the user wanted to add a CPP define to the command line, they would normally invoke make like: $ make CPPFLAGS=-DDEBUG But in so doing they would accidentally remove the -I option that is (presumably) required for compiling.

All rights reserved. o. c. y. y,v, which it actually has. o with gcc, and linking it to form foo again with gcc. All this from the implicit rules database. Pretty cool. The files generated by chaining rules are called intermediate files and are treated specially by make. First, since intermediate files do not occur in targets (otherwise they would not be intermediate), make will never simply update an intermediate file. Second, because make creates intermediate files itself as a side effect of updating a target, make will delete the intermediates before exiting.

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