By Sherwood Hall
content material: Pharmacology of marine pollution : results on membrane channels / Gary Strichartz and Neil citadel --
Biosynthesis of crimson tide pollution / Yuzuru Shimizu, Sandeep Gupta, and Hong-Nong Chou --
The saxitoxins : assets, chemistry, and pharmacology / Sherwood corridor, Gary Strichartz, E. Moczydlowski, A. Ravindran, and P.B. Reichardt --
High-performance liquid chromatographic process utilized to paralytic shellfish poisoning study / John J. Sullivan --
A bacterial resource of tetrodotoxins and saxitoxins / Mark L. Tamplin --
common pollution from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) / Wayne W. Carmichael, Nik A. Mahmood, and Edward G. Hyde --
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functionality studied with man made (+)-anatoxin-a and derivatives / K.L. Swanson, H. Rapoport, R.S. Aronstam, and E.X. Albuquerque --
Polyether pollutants occupied with seafood poisoning / Takeshi Yasumoto and Michio Murata --
Ca-dependent excitatory results of maitotoxin on delicate and cardiac muscle / Yasushi Ohizumi and Masaki Kobayashi --
X-ray crystallographic stories of marine pollution / Gregory D. Van Duyne --
Brevetoxins : precise activators of voltage-sensitive sodium channels / Vera L. coach, Richard A. Edwards, Alina M. Szmant, Adam M. Stuart, Thomas J. Mende, and Daniel G. Baden --
Detection, metabolism, and pathophysiology of brevetoxins / Mark A. Poli, Charles B. Templeton, Judith G. speed, and Harry B. Hines --
The molecular foundation of ciguatoxin motion / Christian Frelin, Monique Durand-Clément, Jean-Noël Bidard, and Michel Lazdunski --
A standpoint on palytoxin / Gary Strichartz --
Mechanism of palytoxin motion at the epidermal development issue receptor / Elizabeth V. Wattenberg, Hirota Fujiki, and Marsha wealthy Rosner --
Mechanism of pharmacological motion of palytoxin / Yasushi Ohizumi --
construction of antibodies and improvement of a radioimmunoassay for palytoxin / Lawrence Levine, Hirota Fujiki, Hilda B. Gjika, and Helen Van Vunakis --
New tumor promoters from marine typical items / Hirota Fujiki, Masami Suganuma, Hiroko Suguri, Shigeru Yoshizawa, Kanji Takagi, Michie Nakayasu, Makoto Ojika, Kiyoyuki Yamada, Takeshi Yasumoto, Richard E. Moore, and Takashi Sugimura --
Pharmacological and toxicological experiences of palytoxin / James A. Vick and Joseph Wiles --
Conotoxins : precise peptide ligands from snail venoms / Baldomero M. Olivera, David R. Hillyard, Jean Rivier, Scott Woodward, William R. grey, Gloria Corpuz, and Lourdes J. Cruz --
Sea anemone polypeptide pollution affecting sodium channels : preliminary structure-activity investigations / William R. Kem, Michael W. Pennington, and Ben M. Dunn --
resolution constitution of sea anemone pollution via NMR spectroscopy / N. Vasant Kumar, Joseph H.B. Pease, Hugues Schweitz, and David E. Wemmer --
Cytolytic peptides of sea anemones / Alan W. Bernheimer --
pollutants from marine invertebrates / M.J.A. Walker and V.L. Masuda --
a few usual jellyfish pollutants / Joseph W. Burnett --
Neurotoxins from sea snake and different vertebrate venoms / Anthony T. Tu --
starting place, chemistry, and mechanisms of motion of a repellent, presynaptic excitatory, ionophore polypeptide / P. Lazarovici, N. Primor, J. Gennaro, J. Fox, Y. Shai, P.I. Lelkes, C.G. Caratsch, G. Raghunathan, H.R. man, Y.L. Shih, and C. Edwards.
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Additional resources for Marine Toxins. Origin, Structure, and Molecular Pharmacology
Filter-feeders accumulate the saxitoxins from the toxigenic dinoflagellates i n the phytoplankton they consume and pass the toxins o n to the predators that consume them i n turn. In general, the result at each step w i l l depend o n the sensitivity o f the consumer to the toxins and the extent to which it retains the toxins and modifies them. Thus a filter-feeder o r subsequent carnivore that is relatively insensitive to the saxitoxins and retains them efficiently can accumulate high levels and cause illness o r death when consumed by a predator that is sensitive.
A s discussed above, there is the possibility that toxigenesis i n Alexandrium is not intrinsic but due to symbionts. Whichever proves to be the case, the observed patterns o f toxin c o m p o s i t i o n , whether they are for the dinoflagellate itself o r the isolated assemblage o f dinoflagellate and symbiont, are a basis for recognizing and distinguishing the regional populations. In Table I the 11-hydroxysulfates are entered as epimeric pairs (3,5; 4,6; 9,11) because they are seldom encountered singly; an extract found to contain one w i l l generally be found to contain some amount o f its epimer.
It is generally necessary to multiply the response obtained from a detection method by a response factor to convert the response into a useful value. F o r instance, the response o f a fluorescence detector w o u l d be m u l t i p l i e d by an appropriate factor (f ) to obtain the concentration o f the particular toxin present, or by a different factor (f ) to calculate the toxicity. Since the specific toxicities o f the various toxins — the ratios o f toxicity to concentration — vary over a broad range, the f and f for a given toxin w i l l generally be different, often greatly so.