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By A. Z. Fradin (Auth.)

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Here the energy is continuously scattered from the surfaces of these antennas. In other words, in the given case, diffraction of electromagnetic waves takes place from the surface of a dielectric rod (tube) or from the sur­ face of the guide. Thus, microwave antennas, apeurt from a conductor element, have a diffracting element, forming the directional pattern by the process of diffraction of the electromagnetic wave from some part of the surface of this element. • In many cases microwave antennas, as we have seen, have a third element as well, a waveguide channelling energy from the first element to the second.

2 5 ) are employed for calculating the electromagnetic field in the volume V . a 4 . The Vector Potential Method Frequently the method of vector potentials is adopted to solve equations ( 2 . 1 ) . The auxiliary vector functions A® and are introduced, related to the field vectors Ε and fl by the following identities Té. Ε f a ^ A % j L // I grad div A^'-ToiA'^, : - j^uA'^J^ grad d iivvA°'+ / ω δ ί ^ 4 - Λ erad > + rot Substitution of ( 2 . 2 6 ) in. ^ 2 . 27) • As well as the vector potential certain authors employ the Hertzian vector related to A by the identity Í = 7ω /7.

18) By here we mean the magnetic charge, introduced into consideration for reasons similar to the introduction of the magnetic currents j"^ and related to the latter by div7"'=-yp°^. Thus, by using the auxiliary sources method we^have obtained the exact values of the vectors Ε and Η for the m m arbitrary point M, expressed through the volume distribution of electric and magnetic currents and charges J , and through the vectors Ε and Η of the field at the given surface S. 15) ancL ( 2 . 1 7 ) , ^oth directly and in different form, are widely used below for calculation of radiation fields.

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