By Paul Brooker
This e-book specializes in rebel stateless battle in its guerrilla and terrorist modes and in its nationalist, maoist and postmaoist levels of modernisation. Insurgency is in comparison with states battle and with criminal activity after which insurgents cause, capability and chance are analysed from social-science, army and environmental views.
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Extra resources for Modern stateless warfare
Instead of wars between states there are 1) inter-band conflicts between stateless bands with different military capabilities or 2) civil wars between semistates with different military capabilities. In contrast, an insurgency waged by a band against a state is a war between unlike units that differ in their form of capability, not simply their level of capability, to wage war against each other. Structurally, this contrast can be depicted as another expression of the verticality of insurgency – of rising up against an unlike unit – rather than the horizontal nature of wars between ‘like units’ that ‘square off’ against each other.
But unlike the military intensification, this political intensification was not a defining feature of the second phase. At most it was a characteristic tendency that accompanied the second phase and highlighted important anomalies in the way that the second phase has evolved. For example, the only second-phase case that comes close to being as famous as Mao’s success in China is Castro’s success in Cuba, but the 1956–9 Cuban insurgency lacked both a proper ideology and a proper party. The nearest thing to an ideology was a pro-democratic determination to overthrow the Batista military regime, and Castro’s only political organisation, the Movement of 26 July, seems to have been little more than an auxiliary urban underground movement.
Similarly, they tend to have little interest in political parties, especially the tightly organised, Leninist type of party. Instead their political message and level of political organisation tends to ‘fit’ their particular historical and cultural environment, enabling them to exploit existing dispositions and structures instead of having to create them largely ‘from scratch’. 32 Modern Stateless Warfare The third phase therefore seems a politically very flexible phase, not only incorporating all types of insurgency but also displaying a varied range of ideological perspectives.